Tag Archives: INTERNET

Episode 10 – IPv6 Internet Addressing

We returned to record our tenth episode on Sunday August 21, 2016.

Interesting News and Events

Roundtable Discussion – IPv6

IPv4 provides an addressing capability of 232 or approximately 4.3 billion addresses
RFC 791 September 1981

Issues with IPv4 addressing:

  • not enough available address space
  • all blocks are already provisioned
  • conflicting IPv4 addressing between networks requires NAT


Grey/Black market for IPv4 Address space;

Microsoft pays Nortel $7.5 million for IPv4 addresses – Bankrupt Nortel finds a buyer for 666K of its legacy IPv4 addresses, raising questions if the IPv4 black/grey market has arrived.

Cellular Mobile 3G/4G Networks – Carrier NAT

Local Internet Registry

IP NG  – early working-group proposals
The Internet Engineering Task Force adopted the IPng model on 25 July 1994, with the formation of several IPng working groups.[4] By 1996, a series of RFCs was released defining Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), starting with RFC 1883. (Version 5 was used by the experimental Internet Stream Protocol.)
IPv6 Addresses -128Bit 3.4×10^38 addresses

Just how many IPv6 addresses are there? Really?

Subnet Cheat Cheat

Usage Statistics of IPv6

Address Types

  • Unicast
  • Multicast
  • Anycast

Dual-Stack IPv6 Use cases:

  • Management networks
  • home net / Mobile Laptop connectivity via IPv6 Tunnel
  • mergers , change the subnet / prefix on the fly

IPv6: Privacy Extensions

  • Stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC)

Neighbor Discovery

What is no longer available?

  • NAT
  • packet fragmentation by routers >> MTU path discovery has to be working for IPv6
  • Broadcast

IPv6 Issues and Problems (IPv6 Multicast Listener Flooding) 

https://blog.bimajority.org/2014/09/05/the-network-nightmare-that-ate-my-week/ (Garrett Wollman)

How to check IPv6 connectivity
The Turtle is dancing – http://www.kame.net/

Who is already available in IPv6? More than you think, Google, Facebook and many other large web centric companies.

Tunnel Mechnaism:
Free 4to6 Tunnel broker:
https://tunnelbroker.net/ >> Hurricane Electric
IPv6 traffic is encapsulated into IPv4 using IPv6-in-IP, UDP (Teredo), or Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)

IPv6 Cheat sheat – http://packetlife.net/media/library/8/IPv6.pdf

Naming IPv6 address parts – Proposed IETF RFC and a VOTE – chazwazza


Episode 4 – Evolution of Broadband Internet

We returned to record our fourth episode on Sunday April 24, 2016.

Interesting News and Events

Roundtable Discussion – Evolution of Broadband Internet

  • 1972 Acoustic coupler modem
    • 1,200 bits by sending 600 symbols per second (600 baud) using phase shift keying
  • 1984 9600 modem (2400 baud) (V.32)
  • 1998 56k modem (8000/3429 baud) (V.90) digital modulation
  • 1988 Integrated Services for Digital Network (ISDN)
    • 64-kbit/s with 2 channels 128kbit/s
    • no market penetration in the US :   It Still Does Nothing
    • Primary Rate Interface (PRI), which is carried over an E1 (2048 kbit/s)
  • X.25 in the 1980s  universal and global packet-switched network
  • 1998 ADSL Asyncron digital subscriber line started at 8.0 Mbit/s1.0 Mbit/s
  • 2008 ADSL2+ITU G.992.5 Annex MADSL2+M 24.0 Mbit/s 3.3 Mbit/s
  • 2001 VDSL Very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line 55 Mbit/s3Mbit/s
  • 2006 VDSL2 100 Mbit/s100 Mbit/s
  • 1997 DOCSIS Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
  • 2013 DOCSIS 3.1   >> 10 Gbit/s downstream and 1 Gbit/s
  • FTTH fiber-to-the-home (Verizon FiOS, Google Fiber, etc)

What tools are you using?

Opengear console servers for building out-of-band management networks. Michael wrote about Opengear back in 2013 in a post titled, Opengear Console Servers – Never leave the office without one! One of the first things I did when I arrived at my new employer over 2+ years ago now was to deploy a number of Opengear appliances to make sure that we had out-of-band access to all the critical network infrastructure.


Notes: this week Mike accidentally had Audacity recording my Logitech webcam microphone and not my Blue Yeti and Dominik had his microphone volume turned up just a little too high.